napule è wikipedia
The University of Naples, the first university in Europe dedicated to training secular administrators, was founded by Frederick II, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Vomero Spaghetti is also associated with the city and is commonly eaten with the sauce ragù: a popular Neapolitan folkloric symbol is the comic figure Pulcinella eating a plate of spaghetti. This system, or one very similar to it, has been in place since the invasion of Italy by Napoleonic forces in 1808. , There are also four funiculars in the city (operated by ANM): Centrale, Chiaia, Montesanto and Mergellina.  In the 6th century BC, it was refounded as Neápolis. Other popular local sports include water polo, horse racing, sailing, fencing, boxing and martial arts. The team plays in the Serie A league and has won the Scudetto twice, the Coppa Italia six times and the Supercoppa Italiana twice. Napule è Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. In the 18th century Naples, together with Milan, became one of the most important sites from which the Enlightenment penetrated into Italy. 19. Naples is one of the main centres of Italian literature. Naples is also the home of the artistic tradition of Capodimonte porcelain. As of 2012[update], the population of the comune di Napoli totals around 960,000. The San Pietro a Majella music conservatory, founded in 1826 by Francesco I of Bourbon, continues to operate today as both a prestigious centre of musical education and a musical museum. De Sanctis was one of the first literary critics to discover, study and diffusing the poems and literary works of the great poet from Recanati. Its province-level municipality is the third-most populous metropolitan city in Italy with a population of 3,115,320 residents, and its metropolitan area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Naples) is the second-most populous metropolitan area in Italy and the 7th-most populous urban area in the European Union. 17.  The Teatro di San Carlo, built in 1737, is the oldest working theatre in Europe, and remains the operatic centre of Naples. , In 1714, Spanish rule over Naples came to an end as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession; the Austrian Charles VI ruled the city from Vienna through viceroys of his own. The city grew rapidly due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, and became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. ", "Il Comune - Area statistica - struttura della popolazione e territorio - città - condizione professionale", "Tasso di disoccupazione : Tasso di disoccupazione - livello provinciale", "Euromonitor Internationals Top City Destinations Ranking Euromonitor archive", "Rapporto sullo stato dell'economia della Provincia di Napoli", "The Naples Train Station-Napoli Centrale", "Istituzione di un senso unico pedonale zona Decumani nel periodo natalizio" (in Italian), "Statistics of cruise passenger arrivals", "Naples Public Transportation Statistics", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, "The Foods of Sicily – A Culinary Journey", "Proposal of recognition of the Specialita' Traditionale Garantita 'Pizza Napoletana'", "Struffoli – Neapolitan Christmas Treats", La diète méditerranéenne. In addition to commercial activities, it is home to the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East..  The demographic profile for the Neapolitan province in general is relatively young: 19% are under the age of 14, while 13% are over 65, compared to the national average of 14% and 19%, respectively. According to different sources, Naples' metropolitan area is either the second-most-populated metropolitan area in Italy after Milan (with 4,434,136 inhabitants according to Svimez Data) or the third (with 3.1 million inhabitants according to the OECD). Naples has an extensive public transport network, including trams, buses and trolleybuses, most of which are operated by the municipally owned company Azienda Napoletana Mobilità (ANM). Naples is the seat of the Archdiocese of Naples, and Catholicism is highly important to the populace; there are hundreds of churches in the city.  Departing Germans burned the library of the university, as well as the Italian Royal Society. Conflict between the Hohenstaufens and the Papacy led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning the Angevin duke Charles I King of Sicily: Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples, where he resided at the Castel Nuovo.  By August 2011, the number of unemployed in the Naples area had risen to 250,000, sparking public protests against the economic situation.  Another seasonal sweet is struffoli, a sweet-tasting honey dough decorated and eaten around Christmas. San Carlo all'Arena, 21. Zona Industriale By the end of the 19th century, party politics had begun to emerge; during the fascist era, each commune was represented by a podestà. De Nicola later helped to draft the modern Constitution of the Italian Republic, and was eventually elected to the office of President of the Italian Republic. The economy of the area formerly known as the Two Sicilies declined, leading to an unprecedented wave of emigration, with an estimated 4 million people emigrating from the Naples area between 1876 and 1913. A wide range of culturally and historically significant sites are nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Vigliena Fort, which was built in 1702, was destroyed in 1799 during the royalist war against the Parthenopean Republic, and is now abandoned and in ruin. Naples gained complete independence by the early ninth century. The Naples language, considered to be a distinct language and mainly spoken in the city, is also found in the region of Campania and has been diffused into other areas of Southern Italy by Neapolitan migrants, and in many different places in the world.  In the sixth century BC the city was refounded as Neápolis (Νεάπολις), eventually becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia. Some of the city's smaller clubs include Sporting Neapolis and Internapoli, which play at the Stadio Arturo Collana. It was expanded by Frederick II and became one of his royal palaces. Serao was an acclaimed novelist and writer during her day. The garden's 15 hectares feature around 25,000 samples of vegetation, representing over 10,000 plant species. It was the forerunner of a much more ambitious project, the Bourbon Hospice for the Poor started by Charles III. Currently, the mayor of Naples is Luigi de Magistris of the Democracy and Autonomy party; de Magistris has held the position since the 2011 elections. , The city's population rose from 621,000 in 1901 to 1,226,000 in 1971, before declining to 957,811 in 2011 as city-dwellers moved to the suburbs. Naples' restaurants have earned the most stars from the Michelin Guide of any Italian city.  In the forty years following unification, the population of Naples grew by only 26%, vs. 63% for Turin and 103% for Milan; however, by 1884, Naples was still the largest city in Italy with 496,499 inhabitants, or roughly 64,000 per square kilometre (more than twice the population density of Paris). Naples hosts also the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, established in 1812 by the king Joachim Murat and the astronomer Federigo Zuccari, the oldest marine zoological study station in the world, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, created in 1872 by German scientist Anton Dohrn, and the world's oldest permanent volcano observatory, the Vesuvius Observatory, founded in 1841.  Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, which was the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. Tourists began visiting Naples in the 18th century, during the Grand Tour.  The A16 is nicknamed the autostrada dei Due Mari ("Motorway of the Two Seas") because it connects the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Adriatic Sea..  However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. The masked character of Pulcinella is worldwide famous figure either as theatrical character or puppetry character. 20. The modern Academy offers courses in painting, decorating, sculpture, design, restoration, and urban planning. 5. Song'e Napule è un film italiano del 2014 diretto dai Manetti Bros. Trama.  In June 2012, allegations of blackmail, extortion and illicit contract tendering emerged in relation to the city's waste management issues..  Four public elevators are in operation in the city: within the bridge of Chiaia, in via Acton, near the Sanità Bridge, and in the Ventaglieri Park, accompanied by two public escalators.. The Bosco di Capodimonte, the city's largest verdant space served as a royal hunting preserve, within the Park there are a further 16 historic buildings including residences, lodges, churches as well as fountains, statues, orchards and woods.. The university is among the most prominent in Italy, with around 100,000 students and over 3,000 professors in 2007. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it eventually switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763. San Giovanni a Teduccio Artists such as Domenico Morelli, Giacomo Di Chirico, Francesco Saverio Altamura, and Gioacchino Toma worked in Naples during this period, and many of their works are now exhibited in the Academy's art collection. , Another Neapolitan castle is Castel Sant'Elmo, which was completed in 1329 and is built in the shape of a star. , There are also four funiculars in the city (operated by ANM): Centrale, Chiaia, Montesanto and Mergellina. The history of the Neapolitan language was deeply entwined with that of the Tuscan dialect which then became the current Italian language. Naples is one of the main centres of Italian literature.  Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, which was the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. In the 16th century it became the Hall of justice. The city also has teams in a variety of other sports: Eldo Napoli represents the city in basketball's Serie A and plays in the city of Bagnoli. The islands of Procida, Capri and Ischia can all be reached from Naples by hydrofoils and ferries. The song "Santa Lucia" played by Tom Cat in Cat and Dupli-cat traced origin from Naples. Previously a Bourbon palace, now a museum and art gallery, the Museo di Capodimonte is another museum of note.  Another notable centre of education is the Istituto Universitario Orientale, which specialises in Eastern culture, and was founded by the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ripa in 1732, after he returned from the court of Kangxi, the Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty of China.. Naples is Italy's fourth-largest economy after Milan, Rome and Turin, and is the world's 103rd-largest urban economy by purchasing power, with an estimated 2011 GDP of US$83.6 billion, equivalent to $28,749 per capita. San Carlo all'Arena, 21.  Naples has a total of 448 historical churches (1000 in total), making it one of the most Catholic cities in the world in terms of the number of places of worship. Piscinola-Marianella , During the time of Ferdinand IV, the effects of the French Revolution were felt in Naples: Horatio Nelson, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against the French republicans. More modern Neapolitan films include Ricomincio da tre, which depicts the misadventures of a young emigrant in the late 20th century.  This originated as a meal of the poor, but under Ferdinand IV it became popular among the upper classes: famously, the Margherita pizza was named after Queen Margherita of Savoy after her visit to the city. Avvocata  A counter-revolutionary religious army of lazzaroni known as the sanfedisti under Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo was raised; they met with great success, and the French were forced to surrender the Neapolitan castles, with their fleet sailing back to Toulon. Naples is also known for its natural beauties, such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields, Nisida, and Vesuvius. Popular Neapolitan pastry dishes include zeppole (more commonly called "'a Pasta Cresciuta" and "'e fFritt' 'e Viento") babà, sfogliatelle and pastiera, the latter of which is prepared specially for Easter celebrations.  Despite the split, Naples grew in importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants, Tuscan bankers, and some of the most prominent Renaissance artists of the time, such as Boccaccio, Petrarch and Giotto. Underneath Naples lies a series of caves and structures created by centuries of mining, and the city rests atop a major geothermal zone. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Milan and Rome.  It also houses many of the antiques unearthed at Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as some artefacts from the Greek and Renaissance periods..  The 2008 film Gomorrah, based on the book by Roberto Saviano, explores the dark underbelly of the city of Naples through five intertwining stories about the powerful Neapolitan crime syndicate, as well as the TV series of the same name. In 1935, the Rationalist architect Luigi Cosenza created a new fish market for the city. Naples is also considered a capital of the Baroque, beginning with the artist Caravaggio's career in the 17th century, and the artistic revolution he inspired.  By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. , The San Gennaro dei Poveri is a Renaissance-era hospital for the poor, erected by the Spanish in 1667.  Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, and later resided in its environs. Special funding from the Italian government's Fund for the South was provided from 1950 to 1984, helping the Neapolitan economy to improve somewhat, with city landmarks such as the Piazza del Plebiscito being renovated. Naples has long been a centre of art and architecture, dotted with Medieval, Baroque and Renaissance-era churches, castles and palaces. Poggioreale In light of this Tancred achieved another unexpected achievement during his counterattack that his contender Constance, now empress, was captured.  Since 2007 trains running at almost 300 km/h (186 mph) have connected Naples with Rome with a journey time of under an hour, and direct high speed services also operate to Florence, Milan and Turin. 28.  This linguistic group is spoken throughout most of southern continental Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora district of southern Lazio, the southern part of Marche and Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and central Apulia. San Lorenzo 16. , Castel Capuano was built in the 12th century by William I, the son of Roger II of Sicily, the first monarch of the Kingdom of Naples.  It is host to the Botanical Garden of Naples, which was opened in 1807 by Joseph Bonaparte, using plans drawn up under the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV.  Other dishes popular in Naples include Parmigiana di melanzane, spaghetti alle vongole and casatiello. Along its history the castle was the residence of many kings and queens. , Naples is traditionally credited as the home of pizza. S.Pietro a Patierno  Below is a selective list of Naples' major churches, chapels, and monastery complexes: Aside from the Piazza del Plebiscito, Naples has two other major public squares: the Piazza Dante and the Piazza dei Martiri. In the period of Belle Époque Naples rivalled with Paris for its Café-chantants, and many famous neapolitan songs were originally created to entertain the public in the cafès of Naples. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMagnussonGoring1990 (, Hilmar C. Krueger. Poet Salvatore Di Giacomo was one of the most famous writers in the Neapolitan dialect, and many of his poems were adapted to music, becoming famous Neapolitan songs. When the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was restored, the system was kept in place with members of the nobility filling mayoral roles. , Since the late 20th century, Naples has had significant economic growth, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples has played an important role in the history of Western European art music for more than four centuries. Stella  It was also an important centre of humanism and Enlightenment. Naples has appeared in episodes of TV serials such as The Sopranos and the 1998 version of The Count of Monte Cristo, starring Gérard Depardieu. Palazzo Como, which dates from the 15th century, hosts the Museo Filangieri of plastic arts, created in 1883 by Gaetano Filangieri. In 1191 Henry invaded Sicily after being crowned as Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor and many cities surrendered, but Naples resisted him from May to August under the leadership of Richard, Count of Acerra, Nicholas of Ajello, Aligerno Cottone and Margaritus of Brindisi before the Germans suffered from disease and were forced to retreat. The team plays in the Serie A league and has won the Scudetto twice, the Coppa Italia six times and the Supercoppa Italiana twice. Because of the significance of the city, many films and television shows are set (entirely or partially) in Naples. Each of the 8,101 comune in Italy is today represented locally by a city council headed by an elected mayor, known as a sindaco and informally called the first citizen (primo cittadino). , Following the Spanish victory, Naples became part of the Spanish Empire, and remained so throughout the Spanish Habsburg period. Scampìa  A regional hydrofoil transport service, the "Metropolitana del Mare", runs annually from July to September, maintained by a consortium of shipowners and local administrations. He was consequently named World Player of the Year. 12.  Naples has a total of 448 historical churches (1000 in total), making it one of the most Catholic cities in the world in terms of the number of places of worship. Ponticelli. The Bosco di Capodimonte, the city's largest verdant space served as a royal hunting preserve, within the Park there are a further 16 historic buildings including residences, lodges, churches as well as fountains, statues, orchards and woods..  In 2007, Silvio Berlusconi's government held senior meetings in Naples to demonstrate their intention to solve these problems. , Sicily and Naples were separated in 1458, but remained dependencies of Aragon under Ferdinand I.  Giuliani, who was actually from Apulia but lived and worked in Naples, is widely considered to be one of the greatest guitar players and composers of the 19th century, along with his Catalan contemporary Fernando Sor.  In June 2012, allegations of blackmail, extortion and illicit contract tendering emerged in relation to the city's waste management issues..  Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope (Παρθενόπη, meaning "Pure Eyes", a Siren in Greek mythology) on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. 23. During the uprising of Masaniello in 1647, the Spanish took refuge in Sant'Elmo to escape the revolutionaries. First settled by Greeks in the first millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. During World War II, these tunnels were used as air-raid shelters, and there are inscriptions in the walls depicting the suffering endured by the refugees of that era. Various buildings inspired by the Gothic Revival are extant in Naples, due to the influence that this movement had on the Scottish-Indian architect Lamont Young, one of the most active Neapolitan architects of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Castel Nuovo has seen many notable historical events: for example, in 1294, Pope Celestine V resigned as pope in a hall of the castle, and following this Pope Boniface VIII was elected pope by the cardinal collegium, before moving to Rome. Neapolitan Mouse takes place in the same city. 16. Time bombs planted throughout the city continued to explode into November. A wide range of culturally and historically significant sites are nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum.  In 1995, the historic centre of Naples was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, a United Nations programme which aims to catalogue and conserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of mankind.  Some of the best-known recording artists in this field include Roberto Murolo, Sergio Bruni and Renato Carosone.  Influenced by the Spanish, Neapolitans became pioneers of classical guitar music, with Ferdinando Carulli and Mauro Giuliani being prominent exponents. Discours et pratiques alimentaires en Méditerranée (vol.  Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval; his appointment was later revoked and Theodore II took his place.  Naples has a higher percentage of females (52.5%) than males (47.5%).   In addition, Naples is Italy's most densely populated major city, with approximately 8,182 people per square kilometre; however, it has seen a notable decline in population density since 2003, when the figure was over 9,000 people per square kilometre. 28. During the uprising of Masaniello in 1647, the Spanish took refuge in Sant'Elmo to escape the revolutionaries.  However, high unemployment continues to affect Naples. The film was directed by Neapolitan Gustavo Serena. , It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples (661–1139), then of the Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816), and finally of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861. Naples has an extensive public transport network, including trams, buses and trolleybuses, most of which are operated by the municipally owned company Azienda Napoletana Mobilità (ANM). Jurisprudence studies were enhanced in Naples thanks to eminent personalities of jurists like Bernardo Tanucci, Gaetano Filangieri and Antonio Genovesi.  The climate and fertility of the Gulf of Naples made the region famous during Roman times, when emperors such as Claudius and Tiberius holidayed near the city. The islands of Procida, Capri and Ischia can all be reached from Naples by hydrofoils and ferries. The small rivers which formerly crossed the centre of the city have since been covered over by construction.  The Cathedral of Naples is the city's premier place of worship; each year on 19 September, it hosts the longstanding Miracle of Saint Januarius, the city's patron saint. In the 18th century Naples, together with Milan, became one of the most important sites from which the Enlightenment penetrated into Italy. They also destroyed the city archives. , 1.  Other dishes popular in Naples include Parmigiana di melanzane, spaghetti alle vongole and casatiello.  The first music conservatories were established in the city under Spanish rule in the 16th century. Naples hosted the 6th World Urban Forum in September 2012 and the 63rd International Astronautical Congress in October 2012. The history of how this song was born was dramatised in the eponymous comedy movie "Ninì Tirabusciò: la donna che inventò la mossa" starring Monica Vitti. Naples has played an important role in the history of Western European art music for more than four centuries. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, and instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, rather than those of the Byzantine Emperor. 18.  In 1501, Naples came under direct rule from France under Louis XII, with the Neapolitan king Frederick being taken as a prisoner to France; however, this state of affairs did not last long, as Spain won Naples from the French at the Battle of Garigliano in 1503. Napule 'e notte è il settimo album del cantante napoletano Tommy Riccio, pubblicato nel 1995.  However, the late-2000s recession had a severe impact on the city, intensifying its waste-management and unemployment problems. , Neapolitan tailoring was born as an attempt to loosen up the stiffness of English tailoring, which didn't suit the Neapolitan lifestyle.. Of the various public parks in Naples, the most prominent are the Villa Comunale, which was built by the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV in the 1780s; the park was originally a "Royal Garden", reserved for members of the royal family, but open to the public on special holidays. "testo" (neap. Daniela Giampaola, Francesca Longobardo (2000). However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, and instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, rather than those of the Byzantine Emperor. Its province-level municipality is the third-most populous metropolitan city in Italy with a population of 3,115,320 residents, and its metropolitan area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Naples) is the second-most populous metropolitan area in Italy and the 7th-most populous urban area in the European Union.  Naples is a major cargo terminal, and the port of Naples is one of the Mediterranean's largest and busiest. In the first years of the 20th century, a local version of the Art Nouveau phenomenon, known as "Liberty Napoletano", developed in the city, creating many buildings which still stand today. In addition to serving as the backdrop for several movies and shows, many talented celebrities (actors, actresses, directors, and producers) are originally from the city of Naples. Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.  Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, and later resided in its environs. Spaghetti is also associated with the city and is commonly eaten with the sauce ragù: a popular Neapolitan folkloric symbol is the comic figure Pulcinella eating a plate of spaghetti. Conflict between the Hohenstaufens and the Papacy led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning the Angevin duke Charles I King of Sicily: Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples, where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. 'O Purtale va situato e se cagna appriesso appriesso. Special funding from the Italian government's Fund for the South was provided from 1950 to 1984, helping the Neapolitan economy to improve somewhat, with city landmarks such as the Piazza del Plebiscito being renovated. People awarded the honorary citizenship of Naples are: L'Aquila, AbruzzoAosta, Aosta ValleyBari, ApuliaPotenza, Basilicata, Catanzaro, CalabriaNaples, CampaniaBologna, Emilia-RomagnaTrieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Rome, LazioGenoa, LiguriaMilan, LombardyAncona, Marche, Campobasso, MoliseTurin, PiedmontCagliari, SardiniaPalermo, Sicily, Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/SüdtirolFlorence, TuscanyPerugia, UmbriaVenice, Veneto, "Napoli" redirects here. Mandelieu-la-Napoule (French pronunciation: [mɑ̃dəljølanapul]; Occitan: Mandaluec la Napola; locally spelled Mandelieu-La Napoule) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France.Located on the French Riviera, just to the southwest of Cannes and northeast of Théoule-sur-Mer, it had a population of 22,452 in 2017. Chiaia Neapolitan cuisine emerged as a distinct form in the 18th century. After a period of Norman rule, in 1189 the Kingdom of Sicily was in a succession dispute between Tancred, King of Sicily of an illegitimate birth and the Hohenstaufens, a German royal house, as its Prince Henry had married Princess Constance the last legitimate heir to the Sicilian throne. The city is situated on the Gulf of Naples, on the western coast of southern Italy; it rises from sea level to an elevation of 450 metres (1,480 ft). The city furthermore operates the Metropolitana di Napoli, the Naples Metro, an underground rapid transit railway system which integrates both surface railway lines and the city's metro stations, many of which are noted for their decorative architecture and public art. Brought to the city by the British during the early 20th century, the sport is deeply embedded in local culture: it is popular at every level of society, from the scugnizzi (street children) to wealthy professionals.  Influenced by the Spanish, Neapolitans became pioneers of classical guitar music, with Ferdinando Carulli and Mauro Giuliani being prominent exponents.  There are furthermore various forms of music popular in Naples but not well known outside it, such as cantautore ("singer-songwriter") and sceneggiata, which has been described as a musical soap opera; the most well-known exponent of this style is Mario Merola.. In addition to serving as the backdrop for several movies and shows, many talented celebrities (actors, actresses, directors, and producers) are originally from the city of Naples. Young left a significant footprint in the cityscape and designed many urban projects, such as the city's first subway.  This originated as a meal of the poor, but under Ferdinand IV it became popular among the upper classes: famously, the Margherita pizza was named after Queen Margherita of Savoy after her visit to the city.
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